Mm Hg millimeters of mercury. Bile may then pass through the common bile duct into the small intestine where some of its components aid in the digestion of fat. Moiety a portion of something, such as a functional group of a molecule. Unfortunately, the liver is unable to add or remove substances from blood that bypasses it. Nerve impulse the electrochemical signal transmitted in the cell membrane of a neuron or muscle cell. Metabolism the sum of the processes (reactions) by which a substance is assimilated and incorporated into the body or detoxified and excreted from the body. Your body uses iron to make hemoglobin. Nucleosome repeating unit of chromatin that consists of DNA that is coiled around histones. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. Kidney stones may form in the kidneys, ureters, or urinary bladder. Ketone bodies are acidic, and very high levels in the blood are toxic and may result in ketoacidosis. These molecules are the ‘message’ that encodes the proteins produced in cells. At the end of keratinization, the cell is wider and flatter and attached to its neighboring cells by a variety of protein and lipid attachments. In cirrhosis, the canaliculi are abnormal and the relationship between liver cells and canaliculi is destroyed, just like the relationship between the liver cells and blood in the sinusoids. The hemoglobin molecule is the functional unit of the red blood cells and is a complex protein structure that is inside the red blood cells. Dermis the layers of skin below the epidermis that support the epidermis in both structure and function. Neural Tube Defect (NTD) a birth defect caused by abnormal development of the neural tube, the structure which gives rise to the central nervous system. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant. In adults, BMI is a measure of body fat: underweight, <18. Benign not malignant. 5; normal weight, 18. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome a rare disorder caused by a tumor called a gastrinoma, most often occurring in the pancreas. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease are neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, subjects are placed on a diet designed to deplete them of a specific nutrient over time. MicroRNA small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of gene expression. BMD is positively associated with bone strength and resistance to fracture, and measurements of BMD are used to diagnose osteoporosis. Elements are composed of only one kind of atom. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. He graduated with chemistry departmental can anemia cause kidney problems honors from Harvey Mudd College. Neoplasm a term referring to a rapid and abnormal growth of tissue. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. Ketone bodies any of three acidic chemicals (acetate, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate). Depletion-repletion study a nutritional study designed to determine the requirement for a specific nutrient. Preparation for liver biopsy includes discontinuing certain medications. Neuron cell of the nervous system that conducts ways to stop smoking cigarettes cold turkey nerve impulses. 9; obese, ≥30. 9; overweight, 25-29. Among other critical functions, mitochondria convert nutrients into energy via the electron transport chain. Xenograft a transplant of tissue from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species. Ultimately, all of the ducts combine into one duct that enters the small intestine. NK cells also have important roles in killing cancer cells. Dermatitis inflammation of the skin. The tumor secretes the hormone gastrin, which causes increased production of gastric acid leading to severe recurrent ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and the upper portions of the small intestine. Bioavailability the fraction of an administered compound that reaches the systemic circulation and is transported to site of action (target tissue). Monomer a molecule that can be chemically bound as a unit of a polymer. Episodes of depressed mood are also common in bipolar disorder. Neutrophil white blood cell that internalizes and destroys pathogens, such as bacteria. Biotransformation enzymes (phase I and phase II) enzymes involved in the metabolism and elimination of a variety of exogenous (drugs, toxins and carcinogens) and endogenous compounds ( steroid hormones). In cirrhosis, the relationship between blood and liver cells is destroyed. As a result, the liver is not able to eliminate toxic substances normally, and they can accumulate in the body. Certain risks are associated with liver biopsy. Nucleotide subunit of nucleic acids. De novo synthesis the formation of an essential molecule from simple precursor molecules. Neurodegenerative disease disease resulting from the degeneration or deterioration of nerve cells ( neurons). By definition, dementia is not due to major depression or psychosis. In the vascular endothelium, nitric oxide promotes arterial vasodilation. The canaliculi empty into small ducts which then join together to form larger and larger ducts. MRNA short for messenger ribonucleic acid ( RNA). Dermatoses any skin disease, especially one not characterized by inflammation. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Ketone bodies may accumulate in the blood (ketosis) when the body has inadequate glucose to use for energy and must increase the use of fat for fuel. Myelin is a layered tissue surrounding the axons or nerve fibers. Increases or decreases in mRNA levels will alter protein production in cells. Commonly known as a heart attack, an MI usually results from the obstruction of a coronary artery by a clot in people who have coronary atherosclerosis. Although the majority of cells in this layer are fibroblasts supported by a collagen network, blood vessels, immune cells, and adipose tissue are also found in the dermis. Amphipathic molecules have a polar or hydrophilic end and a nonpolar or hydrophobic end. Also called nerve cell. It is a combination of reduced numbers of liver cells, loss of the normal contact between blood passing through the liver and the liver cells, and blood bypassing the liver that leads to can anemia cause kidney problems many of the manifestations of cirrhosis. Microtia underdevelopment of the external ear. E. A second reason for the problems caused by cirrhosis is the disturbed relationship between the liver cells and the channels through which bile flows. These tests are used to check not only your kidney function, but also for signs of any other problems, such as the number of red blood cells and how much iron you have in your body. Micronutrient a nutrient required by the body in small amounts, such as a vitamin or a mineral. Liver biopsy is a procedure used to remove a small piece of liver tissue for examination for signs of disease or damage to the liver. Kidney stones solid masses resulting from the crystallization of minerals and other compounds found can anemia cause kidney problems in urine. Methylation a biochemical reaction resulting in the addition of a methyl group (-CH 3) to another molecule. Debridement the removal of necrotic or infected tissue or foreign material from a wound. Nucleus a membrane-bound cellular organelle, which contains DNA organized into chromosomes. Common types of kidney stones include those composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and urate. Balance study a nutritional balance study involves the measurement of the intake of a specific nutrient as well as the elimination of that nutrient in urine, feces, sweat, etc. Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) the lowest dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that will produce a detectable erythema 24 hours after UVR exposure. Iron is important because it helps you get enough oxygen throughout your body. Hemoglobin carries oxygen through your body. Necrosis unprogrammed cell death, in which cells break open and release their contents, promoting inflammation. Mitochondria possess two sets of membranes: a smooth continuous outer membrane and an inner membrane arranged in folds. Neurotransmitter a chemical that is released from a nerve cell and results in the transmission of an impulse to another nerve cell or organ (e. Multiple sclerosis (MS) an autoimmune disorder in which the myelin sheaths of nerves in the brain and spinal cord are damaged, resulting in progressive neurological symptoms. Myelin the fatty substance that covers myelinated nerves. An imbalance in the regulation of the two contrasting events of bone remodeling (bone resorption and bone formation) increases the fragility of bone and may lead to osteoporosis. Coli (a normal intestinal bacteria, as well as a disease-causing agent). Buffer a chemical used to maintain the pH of a system by absorbing hydrogen ions (which would make it more acidic) or absorbing hydroxyl ions (which would can anemia cause kidney problems make it more alkaline). Nephropathy kidney damage or disease. Jaundice a yellowish staining of the skin and whites of the eyes due to increased bilirubin (a bile pigment) levels in the blood. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Myoglobin a heme-containing pigment in muscle cells that binds and stores oxygen. Jaundice can be an indicator of red blood cells rupturing ( hemolysis), or disease of the liver or gallbladder. Recovery from liver biopsy are generally one to two days. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. Bacteria single-celled organisms that can exist independently, symbiotically (in cooperation with another organism) or parasitically (dependent upon another organism, sometimes to the detriment of the other organism). If you do not have enough iron, your body makes fewer and smaller red blood cells. Neurogenesis the formation and development of nerves, nerve tissue, or the nervous system. In micelles, amphipathic molecules orient with their hydrophobic ends in the interior and their hydrophilic ends on the exterior surface, exposed to water. Dendritic cells have a branched morphology that resembles dendrites of a neuron. Nucleic acid DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid); long polymer of nucleotides. Myopathy any disease of muscle. As a result of the obstruction to the flow of blood through the liver, blood "backs-up" in the portal vein, and the pressure in the portal vein increases, a condition called portal hypertension. Mole the fundamental unit for measuring chemical compounds (abbreviated mol). Methionine a sulfur containing amino acid, required for protein synthesis and other vital metabolic processes. If intake is greater than loss of a particular nutrient the individual is said to be in "positive balance. E. Myelination the formation of the myelin sheath around a nerve fiber. Keratinization the process of cell differentiation of a keratinocyte through the different layers of the epidermis. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology can kidney problems cause back pain fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center. The number of molecules in a mole is equal to 6. During “manic” episodes, a person may experience extreme elevation in energy level and mood (euphoria) or extreme agitation and irritability. Neuropathy nerve damage or disease. , a muscle). Nitric oxide a gaseous signaling molecule synthesized from the amino acid arginine by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease. The techniques used to perform liver biopsy include percutaneous liver biopsy, transvenous liver biopsy, and laparoscopic liver biopsy. Cancer is said to metastasize when it spreads from the primary site of origin to a distant anatomical site. Myeloid derived from bone marrow. Neurotoxic food to avoid for kidney problems toxic or damaging to nervous tissue (brain and peripheral can anemia cause kidney problems nerves). Body mass index (BMI) body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Dental caries cavities or holes in the outer two layers of a tooth—the enamel and the dentin. Myocardial infarction (MI) death ( necrosis) of heart muscle tissue due to an interruption in its blood supply. Bile acids components of bile, which are formed by the metabolism of cholesterol, and aid in the digestion of fats. The bile that is produced by liver cells is secreted into very tiny channels that run between the liver cells that line the sinusoids, called canaliculi. Once depletion is achieved, gradually increasing amounts of the nutrient under study are added to the diet until the individual what is low pressure area shows evidence of sufficiency or repletion. NIH US National Institutes of Health. Mutagen an agent that can induce mutation. Dental caries are caused by bacteria, which metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) to form organic acids that dissolve tooth enamel. Monocyte white blood cell that is the precursor to a macrophage. Treatment of diseases of the liver depend upon the cause. G. Red blood cells are can anemia cause kidney problems produced through a series of complex and specific steps. Metastasize to spread from one part of the body to another. Mitochondria energy-producing structures within cells. Natural killer (NK) cells cytotoxic lymphocytes important for the innate immune response that kills pathogens. Xenobiotics may include dietary factors, toxins, pharmaceuticals, and pollutants. , a systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg. Administered under the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the NIH are more than 20 separate institutes and centers devoted to medical research. In addition, the scarring within the cirrhotic liver obstructs the flow of blood through the liver and to the liver cells. To a minor extent, digestion in the intestine also is reduced. Bile is a fluid produced by liver cells that has two important functions: to aid in digestion and to remove and eliminate toxic substances from the body. Decarboxylation a can anemia cause kidney problems chemical reaction involving the removal of a carboxyl (-COOH) group from a compound. Mucocutaneous relating to the mucous membranes of the skin. Bile a yellow, green fluid made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Then your body has less hemoglobin, and you cannot get enough oxygen. Mitosis the process of cell division. This sheath acts as a conduit in an electrical system, allowing rapid and efficient transmission of nerve impulses. , they do not contain carbon as do vitamins and other organic compounds. The only way to know if you have anemia is to have a blood test. Nucleotides are composed of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, or thymine), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one or more phosphate groups. This term is often used to describe a skin rash. Bone remodeling the continuous turnover process of bone that includes bone resorption and bone formation. Keratinocyte primary cell type of the epidermis; these cells produce the structural protein keratin, which comprise the epidermal barrier. Other arteries in the brain and scalp then open (dilate), and throbbing pain is perceived in the head. Myocyte muscle cell. Dementia significant impairment of intellectual abilities, such as attention, orientation, memory, judgment or language. Neutrophils are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because they are white blood cells with multi-lobed nuclei. Contrary to most cells in the human body, red blood cells do not have a nucleus (metabolic center of a cell). Bias any systematic error in an epidemiological study that results in an incorrect estimate of the association between an exposure and disease risk. Dendrite a branched extension of a neuron that receives signals from other neurons. Mutations in a gene may or may not result in an altered gene product. Neurologic or neurological; involving nerves or the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and all sensory and motor nerves). Nested case-control study a case-control study within a cohort study; cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified, and a specified number of matched controls is then selected from the larger cohort for comparison. Minerals are inorganic, i. Micelle an aggregate or cluster of amphipathic molecules in water. The unit of measure for blood pressure. Xenobiotic a chemical compound that is foreign to the organism. Also can anemia cause kidney problems called action potential. Acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are neurotransmitters. Because of the obstruction to flow and high pressures in the portal vein, blood in the portal vein seeks other veins in which to return to the heart, veins with lower pressures that bypass the liver. Calculate your BMI. Mutation a change in a gene; in other words, a change in the sequence of base-pairs in the DNA that makes up a gene. " If intake is less than loss, an individual is said to be in "negative balance" for the nutrient of interest. The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. Even though the liver cells that survive or are newly-formed may be able to produce and remove substances from the blood, they do not have the normal, intimate relationship with the blood, and this interferes with the liver cells' ability to add or remove substances from the blood. Dendritic cell an immune cell that functions in antigen presentation and activation of T lymphocytes. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. It can be obtained through the diet in protein or synthesized from homocysteine. Migraine headache a type of headache thought to be related to abnormal sensitivity of blood vessels (arteries) in the brain to various triggers resulting in rapid changes in the artery size due to spasm (constriction). Talk to your doctor if you think you may have anemia. Bronchitis, chronic long-standing inflammation of the airways, characterized by excess production of sputum, leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow. Dr. Metabolite a compound derived from the metabolism of another compound is said to be a metabolite of that compound. When you have kidney disease, your doctor will want you to have blood tests often. Molecular chaperone a class of proteins that facilitates in the folding and assembly of other proteins. Necrotic cell death may be the result of injury, infection, or infarction. One mole equals the molecular weight of a compound in grams. Normotensive having normal blood pressure, i. Mineral nutritionally significant element. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. In this way, bile gets to the intestine where it can help with the digestion of food. The three phases of xenobiotic metabolism include: (i) activation, (ii) functionalization, and (iii) efflux. Benign prostatic hyperplasia the term used to describe a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. Biomarker a physical, functional, or biochemical indicator of a physiological or disease process. Monounsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid with only one double bond between carbon atoms. Multifactorial refers to diseases or conditions that are the result of interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) the amount of mineral in a given area of bone. At the same time, toxic substances contained in the bile enter the intestine and then are eliminated in how to stop beeping smoke detector the stool. Examples of bacteria include acidophilus (found in yogurt); streptococcus the cause of strep throat; and E. ” Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe alterations in mood. 5-24. 02 x 10 23 (Avogadro's number). In general, phase I biotransformation enzymes, including those of the cytochrome P450 family, catalyze reactions that increase the reactivity of fat-soluble compounds and prepare them for reactions catalyzed by phase II biotransformation enzymes. Monotherapy the use of a single medication to treat a condition. Hemoglobin is a part of your red blood cells. Neural tube defects include anencephaly and spina bifida. They are made in the bone marrow (inner part of the femur and pelvic bones that make most of tips on quitting smoking weed the cells in the blood), and when all the proper steps in their maturation are complete, they are released into the blood stream. Bipolar disorder a mood disorder previously called “manic-depressive illness. Reactions catalyzed by phase II enzymes generally increase water solubility and promote the elimination of these compounds. Xenobiotic metabolism a series of enzymatic can anemia cause kidney problems reactions that convert a foreign chemical compound into an inert substance that can be safely excreted from the body. DEXA or DXA Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Mucin a glycoprotein that lubricates and protects body surfaces. Myocarditis an inflammation of the heart muscle. The tendency toward migraine appears to involve serotonin, a neurotransmitter that can trigger the release of vasoactive substances in the blood vessels.