Ascites can also produce shortness of breath from pressure placed on the diaphragm. If the underlying cause of cirrhosis cannot be corrected or removed, scarring will continue. The most common causes of cirrhosis in the United States are long-term viral hepatitis C infection and chronic alcohol abuse. Treatment A patient's medical history can reveal illnesses or lifestyles likely to lead to cirrhosis. As of hepatic cirrhosis how to treat 2003, what creates high blood pressure however, the serum hyaluronic acid test is most useful in monitoring the progress of liver disease; it is unlikely to completely replace liver biopsy in the diagnosis of cirrhosis. A doctor who suspects cirrhosis may order blood and urine tests to measure liver function. Alterations in mental status, personality, or behavior (“hepatic encephalopathy”) are common but vary in severity and may not hepatic cirrhosis how to treat be noticed initially. Edema and ascites produce itching and impaired skin integrity. Instruction is needed about diet, medication use and restrictions, skin care, infection protection, and importance of complete alcohol abstinence. See: illustration Treatment Cirrhosis hepatic cirrhosis how to treat is the severe scarring of the liver and poor liver function seen at the terminal stages of chronic liver disease. Because only a small number of healthy cells are needed to carry out essential liver functions, test results may be normal even when cirrhosis is present. Limited thoracic expansion caused by hepatomegaly or ascites and endocrine changes such as menstrual irregularities, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, and loss of chest and axillary hair may also be present. The National Institute of Health reports that 5 to 20 percent of people infected with hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis over a period of food that lower blood pressure 20 to how to help an alcoholic son 30 years. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis must demonstrate a willingness to stop drinking before being considered suitable transplant candidates. Assessment of alertness (orientation, reflexes, and pupil reaction), and sensory and motor abnormalities (incoordination or hyperreflexia) is necessary. These include: A chronic disease of the liver characterized by scarring of the liver with loss of normal hepatic architecture and areas of ineffective regeneration. The focus is on strength conservation. Sensory perception may be decreased secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Jaundice develops as a result of biliary obstruction. The World Health Organization reports that only 20 to 30 percent of people infected with hepatitis B will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. A portal systemic shunt may be surgically placed to treat resistant esophageal varices. Careful monitoring is needed to spot early hepatic cirrhosis how to treat signs of life-threatening complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy or esophageal bleeding. Obesity can be a risk factor by itself, or in combination with alcoholism and hepatitis C. Variceal sclerosis may be performed via endoscopy to eliminate the varicosities. Hepatic encephalopathy is managed by reducing ammonia formation through reduced protein intake, administering lactulose to decrease pH in the intestines, and administering antibiotics to reduce bacterial flora in the colon. Multiple skin findings may include abnormal pigmentation, palmar erythema, spider angiomas, ecchymoses, and dilated abdominal veins. This includes rest to reduce metabolic demands on the liver; a high-calorie, high-protein (unless hepatic encephalopathy is present), high-carbohydrate, and low-fat, low-sodium diet; diuretics to reduce edema; digestants to promote fat digestion; supplemental vitamins; and hepatic cirrhosis how to treat stool softeners. Pruritus is reported when significant jaundice is present. The scarring is most often caused by long-term exposure to toxins such as alcohol or viral infections. Liver transplants can benefit patients with advanced cirrhosis. Prevention Fatigue and malaise are common but nonspecific symptoms of the illness. A CT scan is an X-ray procedure that combines many X-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional what is chronic kidney disease stage 4 and three-dimensional images of internal organs and structures of the body. Hepatitis C is rarely transmitted by blood transfusion in the United States due to rigorous standards of blood bank screening. A newer and less invasive test involves the measurement of hyaluronic acid in the patient's blood serum. Chronic care focuses on education. Nursing considerations Nursing care for individuals with acute disease is multifaceted, complex, and dictated by the stage of the disease and presenting symptomatology. Anorexia, early satiety, dyspepsia, altered bowel habits, and easy bruising and bleeding also are reported often. The liver will fail, and the patient will probably die within five years. Esophageal varices may be treated by using blood and blood products, gastric lavage, or esophageal balloon to stem bleeding. Becoming a nondrinker, eating a balanced diet, and getting adequate exercise can prevent or slow cirrhosis. However, the new liver will eventually become diseased hepatic cirrhosis how to treat unless the underlying cause of cirrhosis is removed. Contrast material may be injected into a vein or the spinal fluid to enhance the scan. Adequate hydration must be maintained with careful monitoring for fluid and electrolyte and acid base imbalances, reduction of protein, prevention of constipation, and strict bed rest. Individuals need to understand that this disease is chronic in nature and requires continuous care to reduce or prevent serious complications. Liver transplantation may be the only hope for those with advanced disease. In the individual with hepatic encephalopathy, the focus is on monitoring systems affected by increased ammonia levels and assessing whether levels are effectively being reduced. Therapy is aimed at liver cell regeneration and the prevention or treatment of symptoms. Infection control measures should also be in effect hepatic cirrhosis how to treat to reduce the possibility of infection from environmental pathogens in these susceptible individuals. Liver changes can be seen during a physical examination. Skin care requires careful diligence to prevent excoriation and breakdown. In order to evaluate fluid status the fluid intake and output and daily weight are measured and recorded. Ascites may be treated with abdominal paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunt. This places the individual at increased risk for injury and requires the implementation of injury prevention protocols. It has many essential body functions. Renal dialysis is used to treat renal failure. The liver is located in the upper right side of the abdomen below the ribs. This includes balancing rest and lower back sciatica pain relief activity and correcting nutritional imbalances. A CT scan is a low-risk procedure. Patients in the advanced stages of cirrhosis require periodic and thorough monitoring to detect blood loss in the form itchy skin and kidney problems of hematemesis, tarry stools, bleeding gums, frequent and heavy nosebleeds, and hepatic cirrhosis how to treat bruising. Patients who stop drinking after being diagnosed with cirrhosis can increase their likelihood of living more than a few years from 40% to 60-70%. Continued fluid and electrolyte imbalances and inefficient metabolism of nutrients produce ascites, hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia. Prompt treatment needs to be sought at any sign of complication. These engorged vessels are subject to rupture with subsequent how do you spell asma hemorrhage that is abetted by clotting disorders. Interventions The first step is elimination of toxic agents, such as alcohol or drugs. It’s possible to be exposed to infected blood through contaminated needles of any source, including tattooing, piercing, intravenous drug abuse, and needle hepatic cirrhosis how to treat sharing. This requires careful positioning and monitoring of respiratory rate and rhythm. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may be used to divert portal blood from the liver to relieve portal hypertension. Signs of esophageal bleeding, such as hematemesis or bloody stools, should be treated as an emergency because bleeding must be stopped quickly. Clinical symptoms result from loss of functioning liver cells and increased resistance to blood flow through the liver (portal hypertension). Obstruction to the return of blood from the portal system causes increased pressure within the veins of the esophagus and stomach. Signs of the illness may include ascites; asterixis; bleeding from gums, nose, or gastroesophageal varices; “mousy” breath odor; edema; jaundice; and an irregular liver edge with hepatic enlargement (the liver may shrink when complete loss of function is present). Referrals may be made to substance abuse programs and community or home health care agencies. Obesity is also a cause of cirrhosis, although it is not as prevalent as alcoholism or hepatitis C. See: alcoholism; encephalopathy; esophageal varix; hepatic; liver Etiology Hepatitis C can be contracted through sexual intercourse or exposure to infected blood or blood products.